In recent months, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has begun regulating the use of chlorhexidis (CCl) in drinking water for the first time.
As with any new technology, there are many questions and many uncertainties.
Here’s what we know so far.
Will CCl cause adverse health effects?
According to a recent paper by the EPA, “Chlorhexidising agents are considered safe for humans and can be safely used to disinfect drinking water.”
However, a recent study by the University of Southern California’s (USC) Institute for Science, Technology, and Environmental Policy (ISTEP) has shown that chlorhexids “may be toxic to human health and the environment”.
This means that they may cause adverse effects on human health.
While the studies that the ISTEP conducted do not explicitly state that chloris have been linked to adverse health outcomes, they do suggest that there may be adverse effects.
For example, “cathode-ray scattering from CCl exposure was associated with elevated urinary concentrations of cytochrome c oxidase in rats,” a chemical involved in the breakdown of cellular organelles (cells) into their constituent chemicals.
In other words, the authors suggest that CCl may have a deleterious effect on the kidneys, liver and kidneys.
It is possible that there are additional negative health effects of using chloris on humans.
In fact, there is evidence that it has been linked with cancer, cardiovascular disease, and even Parkinson’s disease in animals.
However, even with these negative health impacts, the FDA has stated that “most consumers should not use chloris in drinking waters due to health concerns.”
Does chloris contain toxic substances?
The EPA has said that “Chromosomal degradation products may be toxic” and that “chloric acid and chloroform are among the most toxic chemicals known.”
These two chemicals have been found to have potentially toxic effects on humans and the world’s oceans.
In a study conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), researchers found that chloroacetic acid, “probably the most widely used disinfectant in the world,” contained “significant amounts of cytoprotoxins,” which are substances that have been shown to cause DNA damage and DNA mutations.
The research team concluded that the chemical was “likely carcinogenic, but not necessarily cancer-causing.”
The scientists also noted that “the chemical does not contain any of the known carcinogenic or genotoxic ingredients.”
In other cases, there has been a link between chloris use and “the development of cancer.”
For example in a 2010 study, researchers at the University, Pennsylvania School of Medicine (USPOM) and University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) found that the use by humans of chlorois in drinking and other water sources “increased the likelihood of DNA damage” and “increase the likelihood that DNA damage occurs in the cells of cells that have a tendency to undergo mutations.”
In addition, they also found that “an increase in DNA damage was associated to chloris exposure, which is associated with a higher risk of cancer” in people with DNA mutations that can lead to cancer.
Does CCl have a negative health effect on humans?
While there is no conclusive evidence that C Cl is harmful to humans, there have been reports of adverse health impacts associated with the use and abuse of chloris.
A 2012 review of a dozen epidemiological studies of C Cl-containing foods and beverages found that consumption of these products is associated, on average, with “an increased risk of bladder cancer.”
Another study found that Ccl-containing products are “more likely to be ingested by children than adults.”
In 2011, a meta-analysis of 27 studies found that consumers of chlori-containing drinks were at a greater risk of liver cancer than consumers of alcohol.
The authors of the meta-analyses also found a “statistically significant association between chlori consumption and liver cancer.”
According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), “CCl exposure has been associated with increased rates of liver tumors in both men and women, and has been shown in multiple epidemiologic studies to be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.”
Is CCl safe for use in drinking-water systems?
The use of CCl in drinking systems has been in the spotlight for some time now.
In the 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a recommendation that chloras should not be used in drinking fountains, showerheads, and other drinking water systems.
Since then, several studies have been conducted that have found C Cl to be safe for drinking water and for human consumption.
For instance, the Institute for Social and Environmental Medicine (ISSEM) in 2005 published a meta, meta-analytic study in which they found that drinking water